Armies of Scotland

Raised initially to oppose the king’s attempt to impose bishops on the Scottish Kirk, the forces of the Covenant ultimately became the army of the defacto government of Scotland. The Covenanter government fielded capable armies in all three kingdoms and in the courses of the wars fought on both sides (parliament and King). It could be argued that until the rise of the new model army in England, the armies of the Covenant were probably the best organized and possibly the best armed of any:

Armies of the Covenant

By comparison the Royalist armies in Scotland were decidedly rag tag and disorganized. Still for much of the period of the First Civil War at least, they gave much better than they got:

The Royalist Opposition

The war in the highlands of Scotland often centered more on old rivalries and ancient emneties than who happened to be ruling in Edinburgh. The highland forces vanished as quickly as they appeared, their armies fluctuating wildly in both size and makeup from day to day:

Forces in the Highlands


back to My Army Organization of the Three kingdoms






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